Chapter 9, Joseph’s Mummy in the Cairo Museum – Part 6

Mummy_mask_of_Yuya-photo-by-Jon Bodsworth-unrestricted-useThis is a part 6 of my review of Ahmed Osman’s book Lost City of Exodus. Chapters 6 through 8 are intentionally left out of this online edition of the review, but are likely to appear in the printed edition in the future.

In the ninth chapter, Osman reminds his readers that as a young man in Egypt, he had joined the Muslim Brotherhood, which had been founded by his school teacher in 1928. He says that the goal of the Muslim Brotherhood was to re-establish the Islamic caliphate, a goal now shared by the Muslim terrorist organisation known as ISIS.
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Chapter 5, Freud’s Dream – Part 5

Sigmund_Freud_LIFEThis is a continuation of my review of Ahmed Osman’s book Lost City of Exodus. The introductory is here. Chapter 4 was intentionally left without a review.

In the fifth chapter, Osman informs his readers that Sigmund Freud, a world-famous scholar and Austrian neurologist, also of Jewish background, agrees with the historical account of Manetho.
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Chapter 3, Egypt Remembers – Part 4

British_Museum,_Egypt_Egyptian_Sculpture_~_Colossal_granite_head_of_Amenhotep_IIIIn the third chapter, Osman provides some general information regarding the “Israel Stele.” He points out the famous British archaeologist discovered the granite stele back in 1896 in a funerary temple of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The funerary temple was located west of Thebes, bearing the name “Israel”.

Osman writes that there had been silence concerning Israel’s co-existence with the Egyptians, but that they “seem to have known many details about Moses and his Exodus. While contemporary pharaonic authorities seem to have deliberately suppressed the mention of Moses and his followers in their records, for more than ten centuries popular traditions kept the story of the man whom Egyptians regarded as a divine being, before it was later recorded by Egyptian priests.”

Osman further points out that under the Macedonian rule, after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, “Egyptian historians made sure to include the story of Moses and his exodus in their historical accounts.”

The author mentions the historical accounts of Manetho, and how some fragments of his writings have survived through first-century CE Jewish historian Flavius Josephus and through the writings of Sextus Julius Africanus, Eusebius and Plutarch. Osman writes that all of these historians and chronographers agree that:

  1. Moses was not a Hebrew, but rather an Egyptian
  2. Moses lived during the same time as Pharaoh Amenhotep III (Solomon) which was between 1405 and 1367 BCE)
  3. The Exodus of the Israelites was during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses

Some interesting comments concerning how the Egyptians viewed Moses and information regarding Manetho are quoted from the writings of Josephus.

Osman quotes Canadian Egyptologist Donald B. Redford: “What he (Manetho) found in the temple library in the form of a duly authorized text he incorporated in his history; and, conversely, we may with confidence postulate for the material in his history a written source found in the temple library, and nothing more.” {Pharaonic King Lists, Annals and Day Books, Donald B. Redford, Benben Publications, 1986}

Concerning Moses, referred to as a “rebel leader”, already identified as Akhenaten, Osman says that he “abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced a monotheistic worship centered on the Aten… [and] erected his new temples open to the air facing eastward; in the same way as the orientation of the Heliopolis.”

Osman again quotes Redford, saying that “a number of later independent historians, including Manetho, date Moses and the bondage to the Amarna period…” it is self-evident that the monotheistic preaching at Mount Sinai is to be traced back ultimately to the teachings of Akhenaten.” {Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald B. Redford, Princeton University Press, 1993 reprint}

We have another valuable quote from Redford concerning Moses/Akhenaten: “The figure of Osarseph/Moses is clearly modeled on the historic memory of Akhenaten. He is credited with interdicting the worship of all the gods and, in Apion, of championing a form of worship which used open-air temples oriented east, exactly like the Aten temples of Amarna.” {Pharaonic King Lists, Annals and Day Books, Donald B. Redford, Benben Publications, 1986}

Chapter 2, Who Wrote the Exodus Story – Part 3

In the second chapter, Osman begins discussing the authenticity of the narratives outlined in the Book of Exodus. The authorship of Exodus has been debated for hundreds of years with no real consensus on the matter.

Osman relates information regarding how some scholars have indicated that the Book of Exodus may very well have been composed by more than one author, over a long period of time.
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Book Review: The Lost City of Exodus – Part 2

Chapter 1, The Story of the Exodus

Osman starts out with providing a backdrop for the reader with the Biblical narrative concerning Abraham and Sarah arriving in Egypt. He then shares the narrative concerning Joseph in the Pharaohs house, being falsely accused of rape and being sent to prison.

Osman shows that this particular Pharaoh, as the Bible indicates, “did not know Joseph,” and thus decided to oppress the Israelites who had already been residing as shepherds and farmers in Egypt. This is the king of Egypt that became the Pharaoh of Oppression. “It was this new Pharaoh, who didn’t know Joseph, who enslaved the Children of Israel by putting them to hard labor.” {page 18} See Exodus 1:11, 14.
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Book Review: The Lost City of Exodus – Part 1

lost-city-of-exodus-book-spreadThe Book’s Prologue and Introduction

In the prologue, Osman shares his frustrations with various scholars who, although they could see some of the overwhelming evidence which he had presented, one by one they refused to work with him due to a conflict between the evidence and their personal religious beliefs or ideologies and biases.

Osman also shares with his readers what was obviously a very angry Zahi Hawass, an Egyptian archaeologist and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. Hawass was unable to agree with Osman’s conclusions due to political and anti-Semitic reasons, which is often the case with other historians and scientists. Many have spoken of Hawass’ pride and arrogance. Hawass is known in the media for throwing tantrums and attempting to control others. Anyone who has worked directly with him, or had brief conversations with him, know this to be true. But enough on that subject.
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